Besides what concrete techniques and models designer uses for designing educational programs, his / her way of thinking will affect it. Following authors of 4C/ID model*, I consider the two main ways of thinking when designing educational programs - atomic and complex. They determine how the designer thinks in general when designing a program.
*Van Merriënboer, J. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2017). Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design. Routledge.